In a letter published in Science on October 29, 2021, scientists urged WTO members to harness their political mandate to protect the health of the ocean and the well-being of society.
461
scientists and experts now support that call

WTO must ban harmful fisheries subsidies

We need more scientists & experts to add their voice to this call for governments to secure a deal to help curb overfishing, biodiversity degradation and loss, CO2 emissions, and to safeguard food and livelihoods

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Sustainably managed wild fisheries support food and nutritional security, livelihoods, and cultures (1). Harmful fisheries subsidies—government payments that incentivize overcapacity and lead to overfishing—undermine these benefits yet are increasing globally (2). World Trade Organization (WTO) members have a unique opportunity at their ministerial meeting in November to reach an agreement that eliminates harmful subsidies (3). We—a group of scientists spanning 46 countries and 6 continents—urge the WTO to make this commitment.

To curb overfishing, biodiversity degradation and loss, and CO2 emissions, and to safeguard food and livelihoods, WTO members must prohibit fisheries subsidies that cause harm, such as those that lower the cost of fuel and vessel construction and those that provide price support to keep market prices artificially high (2). Subsidies to distant-water fishing fleets must be eliminated to prevent overfishing on the high seas and in waters under national jurisdiction. Such subsidies threaten low-income countries that rely on fish for food sovereignty (4, 5). Exceptions to the rules—known as special and differential treatment—should be considered for small-scale fishers that use low-impact gears or that fish for subsistence, but only if decoupled from incentivizing overfishing (6).

An effective agreement must eliminate subsidies for fuel (7), distant-water and destructive fishing fleets (4, 5), and illegal and unregulated vessels in line with the aims of Sustainable Development Goal 14.6 (8). To ensure accountability, it should also support low-income countries’ efforts to meet their commitments and transition to sustainable management. Finally, the agreement should require transparent data documentation and enforcement measures (9).

We call on the heads of state of the High Level Panel for a Sustainable Ocean Economy, the Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership, and the United States–Mexico–Canada Agreement—who have already committed to eliminating harmful subsidies (10–12)—as well as other trade blocs and individual countries, to declare their support now for an agreement that enshrines these recommendations. WTO members must harness their political mandate to protect the health of the ocean and the well-being of society. Now, 461 scientists and experts support this call.

This letter appeared in Science on October 29, 2021.

Signed by:

U. Rashid Sumaila

Institute for Oceans and Fisheries, University of British Columbia

Canada

Daniel J. Skerritt

Institute for Oceans and Fisheries, University of British Columbia

Canada

Sebastian Villasante

Department of Applied Economics, University of Santiago de Compostela

Spain

Anna Schuhbauer

Institute for the Oceans and Fisheries, University of British Columbia

Canada

Andreas Cisneros-Montemayor

School of Resource and Environmental Management, Simon Fraser University

Canada

Hussain Sinan

Marine Affairs Program, Dalhousie University

Canada

Tu Nguyen

Department of Applied Economics, Oregon State University

Malaysia

Patrizia Abdallah

Universidade Federal do Rio Grande

Brazil

Kwasi Addo

Institute for Environment and Sanitation Studies, University of Ghana

Ghana

Ibukun Adewumi

Global Ocean Accounts Partnership, University of New South Wales

Nigeria

Olanike K. Adeyemo

Fish and Wildlife Unit, University of Ibadan

Nigeria

Sahir Advani

Institute for the Oceans and Fisheries, University of British Columbia

Canada

Denis Aheto

Department of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, University of Cape Coast

Ghana

Shehu Akintola

Fisheries Department, Lagos State University

Nigeria

Wisdom Akpalu

Ghana Institute of Management and Public Administration

Ghana

Lubna Alam

Institute for Environment and Development, National University of Malaysia

Malaysia

Juan Alava Saltos

Institute for the Oceans and Fisheries, University of British Columbia

Canada

Eddie Allison

WorldFish, Bayan Lepas

Malaysia

Diva Amon

SpeSeas

Trinidad and Tobago

Marty Anderies

School of Human Evolution and Social Change, Arizona State University

United States

Evan Andrews

Ocean Frontier Institute, Memorial University of Newfoundland

Canada

Ronaldo Angelini

Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Civil Engineering Department

Brazil

Zuzy Anna

Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science, Universitas Padjadjaran

Indonesia

Derek Armitage

School of Environment, Resources and Sustainability, University of Waterloo

Canada

Robert Arthur

Woodhill Solutions, Glyneath House Longtown

United Kingdom

Berchie Asiedu

Department of Fisheries and Water Resources, University of Energy and Natural Resources

Ghana

Lanre Badmus

World Aquaculture Society, African Chapter West African Region

South Africa

Megan Bailey

Marine Affairs Program, Dalhousie University

Canada

Edward Barbier

Department of Economics, Colorado State University

United States

Xavier Basurto

Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University

United States

Dyhia Belhabib

Ecotrust Canada

Canada

Elena Bennett

Department of Natural Resource Sciences and Bieler School of Environment

Canada

Dominique Benzaken

Australian National Centre for Ocean Resources and Security

Australia

Robert Blasiak

Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockhholm University

Sweden

Virginie Bornarel

Institute for the Oceans and Fisheries, University of British Columbia

Canada

David Boyd

School of Public Policy and Global Affairs, University of British Columbia

Canada

Lucus Brotz

Institute for the Oceans and Fisheries, University of British Columbia

Canada

Donovan Campbell

Department of Geography & Geology, The University of the West Indies

Jamaica

Sara Cannon

Department of Geography, University of British

Canada

Ling Cao

School of Oceanography, Shanghai Jiao Tong University

China

Juan Cardenas Campo

School of Economics, Universidad de Los Andes

Colombia

Steve Carpenter

Center for Limnology, University of Wisconsin-Madison

United States

Adriana Carvalho

Department of Ecology, Federal Univsersity of Rio Grande do Norte

Brazil

Alex Caveen

Biological and Marine Sciences, Hull University

United Kingdom

Kai Chan

Institute for Resources, Environment & Sustainability, The University of British Columbia

Canada

F. Stuart Chapin

Institute of Arctic Biology, University of Alaska

United States

Tony Charles

School of the Environment & School of Business, Saint Mary's University

Canada

William Cheung

Institute for the Oceans and Fisheries, University of British Columbia

Canada

Villy Christensen

Institute for the Oceans and Fisheries, University of British Columbia

Canada

Tayler Clarke

Institute for the Oceans and Fisheries, University of British Columbia

Canada

Anne-Sophie Crepin

Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre

Sweden

Jennifer Dianto Kemmerly

Monterey Bay Aquarium

United States

Lian Kwong

Department of Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences, The University of British Columbia

Canada

Frederic Le Manach

BLOOM

France

Valerie Le Brenne

BLOOM

France

Allison Cutting

Institute for the Oceans and Fisheries, University of British Columbia

Canada

Colette Wabnitz

Stanford Center for Ocean Solutions, Stanford University

United States

Essam Mohammed

WorldFish

Eritrea

Gretchen Daily

Natural Capital Project, Woods Institute for the Environment

United States

Hong Yang

Department of Geography and Environmental Science, University of Reading

United Kingdom

Mauricio Castrejon

Grupo de Investigacion en Biodiversidad, Medio Ambiente y Salud, Universidad de Las Americas

Ecuador

Jaime Mendo

Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina

Peru

Fabrice Stephenson

National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA)

New Zealand

John List

The Kenneth C. Griffin Department of Economics, The University of Chicago

United States

Werner Antweiler

Sauder School of Business, The University of British Columbia

Canada

Karly McMullen

Institute for the Oceans and Fisheries, University of British Columbia

Canada

Julia Adelsheim

Institute for the Oceans and Fisheries, University of British Columbia

Canada

Shanta Barley

Minderoo Foundation

Australia

Jennifer Jacquet

New York University

United States

Nancy Knowlton

Author, Citizens of the Sea

United States

Riad Sultan

Department of Economics and Statistics, University of Mauritius

Mauritius

Gakushi Ishimura

Faculty of Agriculture, Iwate University

Japan

Callum Roberts

Centre for Ecology and Conservation, University of Exeter

United Kingdom

Francis Nunoo

Department of Marine and Fisheries Sciences, University of Ghana

Ghana

Katina Roumbedakis

CESAM - Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies, Department of Environment and Planning, University of Aveiro

Portugal

Patrick Kimani

Coastal and Marine Resource Development

Kenya

Ingrid van Putten

CSIRO, Oceans and Atmosphere

Australia

Frank Asche

School of Forest, Fisheries and Geomatics Sciences and the Food Systems Institute, University of Florida

United States

Santiago de la Puente

Institute for the Oceans and Fisheries, University of British Columbia

Canada

Hugh Govan

University of the South Pacific, School of Government, Development and International Affairs (SGDIA)

Fiji

Veronique Garcon

Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique

France

Zahidah Afrin

WMU - Sasakawa Global Ocean Institute, World Maritime Universtiy

Sweden

Jeremy Jackson

Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of Califronia

United States

Richard Tol

Department of Economics, Jubilee Building, University of Sussex

United Kingdom

Karin Limburg

State University of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry

United States

Aart de Zeeuw

Tinung Sustainability Center and Department of Economics, Tilburg University

Netherlands

Nathan Bennett

The Peopled Seas Initiative

Canada

Aurelien Paulmier

Laboratoire d'Etudes en Geophysique et Oceanographie Spatiales, Universite de Toulouse

France

Mairin Deith

Institute for the Oceans and Fisheries, University of British Columbia

Canada

Nancy Doubleday

Faculty of Humanities, McMaster University

Canada

Tyler Eddy

Fisheries & Marine Institute, Memorial University of Newfoundland

Canada

Boris Dewitte

Center for Advanced Studies in Arid Zones, Campus Andres Bello Universidad de La Serena

Chile

Carol McAusland

Department of Food and Resource Economics, University of British Columbia

Canada

Nicholas Dulvy

Earth to Oceans Group, Department of Biological Sciences, Simon Fraser University

Canada

Johannes Iitembu

Department of Fisheries and Ocean Sciences, Sam Nujoma Campus, University of Namibia

Namibia

Lance Morgan

Marine Conservation Institute

United States

David Obura

CORDIO East Africa, 9 Kibaki Flats

Kenya

Trevor Church

Faculty of Land and Food Systems, University of British Columbia

Canada

Monirul Islam

Department of Fisheries, University of Dhaka

Bangladesh

M. Nicole Chabi

Hokkaido University, Institute for the Advancement of Higher Education

Japan

Jorge Ramirez

Charles Darwin Foundation, Av. Charles Darwin s/n

Ecuador

Denise Breitburg

Charles Darwin Foundation, Av. Charles Darwin s/n

United States

Nathan Pacoureau

Earth to Oceans Group, Department of Biological Sciences, Simon Fraser University

Canada

Meaghan Efford

Institute for the Oceans and Fisheries, University of British Columbia

Canada

Maartje Oostdijk

World Maritime University of the International Maritime Organization, a Specialized Agency of the United Nations

Sweden

Mary Wisz

World Maritime University of the International Maritime Organization, a Specialized Agency of the United Nations

Sweden

Laura Elsler

World Maritime University of the International Maritime Organization, a Specialized Agency of the United Nations

Sweden

Paul Ehrlich

Center for Conservation Biology, Department of Biology, Stanford University

United States

Alfredo Giron-Nava

Stanford Center for Ocean Solutions, Stanford University

United States

Margaret Spring

Monterey Bay Aquarium

United States

Kafayat Fakoya

Fisheries Department, Lagos State University

Nigeria

Juan Mayorga

Environmental Market Solutions Lab, University of California Santa Barbara

United States

A. Eyiwunmi Falaye

Department of Aquaculture and Fisheries Management, University of Ibadan

Nigeria

Christopher Anderson

School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences, University of Washington

United States

Katherine Millage

Bren School of Environmental Science and Management, University of California

United States

Clare Fitzsimmmons

School of Natural and Environmental Sciences, Newcastle University

United Kingdom

Colin Barnes

Centre for Environment, Energy and Natural Resource Governance University of Cambridge

United Kingdom

Juan Villasenor-Derbez

Bren School of Environmental Science and Management, University of California

United States

Larry Crowder

Hopkins Marine Station of Stanford University

United States

John Bohorquez

School of Marine & Atmospheric Sciences, Stony Brook University

United States

Richard Carson

Department of Economics, 0508, University of California

United States

Juan Carlos Seijo

School of Natural Resources, Universidad Marista de Merida

Mexico

Michael Harte

College of Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences, Oregon State University

United States

Katie Florko

Institute for the Oceans and Fisheries, University of British Columbia

Canada

Satoshi Yamazaki

Tasmanian School of Business and Economics, University of Tasmania

Australia

Ola Flaaten

The Norwegian College of Fishery Science, UiT the Arctic University of Norway

Norway

Thuy Pham

The Norwegian College of Fishery Science, UiT the Arctic University of Norway

Norway

Mafaniso Hara

Faculty of Economic and Management Sciences, University of the Western Cape

South Africa

Andreea Cojocaru

Department of Innovation, Management and Marketing, UiS Business School, University of Stavanger

Norway

Jesper Stage

Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Lulea University of Technology

Sweden

Daniel Marszalec

Department of Economics and Business, International Christian University

Japan

Frank Meere

Sustainable Fisheries Management

Australia

Selcuk Uzmanoglu

Marmara University, Mehmet Genc Campus

Turkey

Kristin Kleisner

Environmental Defense Fund

United States

Gert van Santen

Retired World Bank Fishery Specialist

Netherlands

Enric Sala

National Geographic, Pristine Seas

United States

Mark Gibbons

Biodiversity and Conservation Biology, University of the Western Cape

South Africa

Vicky Lam

Institute for the Oceans and Fisheries, University of British Columbia

Canada

Gabriel Reygondeau

Institute for the Oceans and Fisheries, University of British Columbia

Canada

Paul Onyango

University of Dar es Salaam, Department of Aquativ Sciences and Fisheries

Tanzania

Keita Abe

Centre for Applied Research (SNF) at NHH

Norway

Jean-Baptiste Jouffray

Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre

Sweden

Barbara Horta e Costa

Center of Marine Sciences, CCMAR, University of Algarve, Campus de Gambelas

Portugal

Marta Flotats Aviles

Institute for the Oceans and Fisheries, University of British Columbia

Canada

Abhipsita Das

Department of Applied Economics, Auburn University, College of Agriculture

United States

Christina Hicks

Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University

United Kingdom

Shakuntala Thilted

Worldfish

Malaysia

Griffin Carpenter

Independent Consultant

Belgium

Carlos Duarte

Computational Bioscience Research Center (CBRC), Computer, Electrical and Mathematical Sciences and Engineering (CEMSE)

Saudi Arabia

Austin Gallagher

Break the Wave

United States

Quentin Hanich

Australian National Centre for Ocean Resources and Security (ANCORS), University of Wollongong

Australia

Andrew Forrest

The Minderoo Foundation, 171-173 Mounts Bay Rd, Perth WA 6000

Australia

Lisa Levin

Center for Marine Biodiversity and Conservation, Scripps Institution of Oceanography

United States

Alex Rogers

REV Ocean

Norway

Dan Laffoley

IUCN World Commission on Protected Areas, IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature)

Switzerland

Kristina Gjerde

IUCN Global Marine and Polar Programme

United States

Rebecca Helm

University of North Caroline Asheville; Smithsonian Institution National Museum of Natural History

United States

Ekow Prah

Centre for Coastal Management (Africa Centre of Excellence in Coastal Resilience), University of Cape Coast

Ghana

Savior Deikumah

Centre for Coastal Management (Africa Centre of Excellence in Coastal Resilience), University of Cape Coast

Ghana

Amanda Lombard

Institute for Coastal and Marine Research, Nelson Mandela University

South Africa

Sarah Glaser

Human and Fisheries Scientist

United States

Precious Mattah

Centre for Coastal Management (Africa Centre of Excellence in Coastal Resilience), University of Cape Coast

Ghana

J.P. Walsh

Graduate School of Oceanography, The University of Rhode Island

United States

Ernest Chuku

Centre for Coastal Management (Africa Centre of Excellence in Coastal Resilience), University of Cape Coast

Ghana

Noble Asare

Department of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences (Africa Centre of Excellence in Coastal Resilience), University of Cape Coast

Ghana

Isaac Okyere

Department of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences(Africa Centre of Excellence in Coastal Resilience), University of Cape Coast

Ghana

Rodrigue Pelebe

Centre for Coastal Management (Africa Centre of Excellence in Coastal Resilience), University of Cape Coast

Ghana

Francis Asuquo

Department of Oceanography, University of Calabar

Nigeria

Alberta Jonah

Centre for Coastal Management (Africa Centre of Excellence in Coastal Resilience), University of Cape Coast

Ghana

Carl Folke

Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University

Sweden

Evans Arizi

Department of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences Centre for Coastal Management (Africa Centre of Excellence in Coastal Resilience), University of Cape Coast

Ghana

Joshua Adotey

Centre for Coastal Management (Africa Centre of Excellence in Coastal Resilience), University of Cape Coast

Ghana

Cullen Hendrix

Josef Korbel School of International Studies, University of Denver and the Peterson Institute for International Economics

United States

Katia Freire

Departamento de Engenharia de Pesca e Aquicultura, Universidade Federal de Sergipe

Brazil

Isigi Kadagi

World Wildlife Fund

United States

Nina Wambiji

Kenya Marine and Fisheries Research Institute

Kenya

Rainer Froese

GEOMAR Helmoholtz Centre for Ocean Research

Germany

Brian Crawford

Retired, Coastal Resources Center, Graduate School of Oceanography, University of Rhode Island

United States

Dawn Kotowicz

Coastal Resources Center, Graduate School of Oceanography, University of Rhode Island

United States

Don Robadue

Retired, Coastal Resources Center, Graduate School of Oceanography, University of Rhode Island

United States

Peter Freeman

Coastal Resources Center, Graduate School of Oceanography, University of Rhode Island

United States

Colin Clark

Department of Mathematics, University of British Columbia

Canada

Maria Gasalla

University of Sao Paulo, Oceanographic Institute, Fisheries Ecosystems Laboratory

Brazil

Jessica Gephart

Department of Environmental Science, American university

United States

Kyle Gillespie

Institute for the Oceans and Fisheries, University of British Columbia

Canada

Christober Golden

Department of Nutrition, Harvard TH Chan School of Public Health

United States

Line Gordon

Global Resilience Partnership

Sweden

Rowenna Gryba

Department of Statistics, University of British Columbia

Canada

Benjamin Halpern

The Bren School of Environmental Science and Management, University of California

United States

Christopher Harley

Institute for the Oceans and Fisheries, University of British Columbia

Canada

Sarah Harper

School of Environmental Studies, University of Victoria

Canada

Lincoln Hood

Marine Futures Laboratory and Sea Around Us - Indian Ocean School of Biological Sciences, University of Western Australia

Australia

Carie Hoover

Marine Affairs Program, Dalhousie University

Canada

Kristen Hopewell

School of Public Policy and Global Affairs, University of British Columbia

Canada

Moenieba Isaacs

Institute for Poverty, Land and Agrarian Studies, School of Government, Faculty of Economic and Management Sciences, University of the Western Cape

South Africa

Moenieba Isaacs

Institute for Poverty, Land and Agrarian Studies, School of Government, Faculty of Economic and Management Sciences, University of the Western Cape

South Africa

Ibrahim Issifu

Institute for the Oceans and Fisheries, University of British Columbia

Canada

Olaf Jensen

Center for Limnology, University of Wisconsin-Madison

United States

Jorge Jimenez Ramon

MarViva

Costa Rica

Xue Jin

Ocean Development Research Institute, Major Research Base of Humanities and Social Sciences of Ministry of Education

China

S. Kim Juniper

University of China

China

Sufian Jusoh

Institute of Malaysian and International Studies, Universiti Kebangsaan

Malaysia

Michael J. Kaiser

The Lyell Centre, Institute of Life & Earth Sciences, Heriot-Watt University

United Kingdom

Omu Kakujaha-Matundu

Department of Economics, University of Namibia

Namibia

Selma Karuaihe

Department of Agricultural Economics, Extension and Rural Development, University of Pretoria

South Africa

Mary Karumba

State Department for Planning

Kenya

Ahmed Khan

Department of Agriculture and Ago-Industry, Agribusiness Division

Cote D'lvoire

John Kurien

Azim Premji University

India

Steven Lade

Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University

Sweden

Mimi Lam

Centre for the Study of the Sciences and the Humanities, University of Bergen

Norway

Glenn-Marie Lange

Retired World Bank Economist

United States

Mohd Latif

Department of Environmental Science and Natural Resources, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

Malaysia

Philippe LeBillon

Institute for the Oceans and Fisheries, University of British Columbia

Canada

Simon Levin

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology and High Meadows Environmental Institute, Princeton University

United States

Priscilla Lopes

Department of Ecology, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte

Brazil

Heike Lotze

Department of Biology, Dalhousie University

Canada

Tabitha Mallory

China Ocean Institute and University of Washington

United States

Roshni Mangar

Institute for the Oceans and Fisheries, University of British Columbia

Canada

Douglas McCauley

Marine Science Institute, University of California Santa Barbara

United States

Jeffrey McLean

Global Health Graduate Programs, McMaster University

Canada

Annie Mejaes

Institute for the Oceans and Fisheries, University of British Columbia

Canada

Michael Melnychuk

Institute for the Oceans and Fisheries, University of British Columbia

Canada

Fiorenza Micheli

Hopkins Marine Station and Stanford Center for Ocean Solutions

United States

Dana Miller

Oceana-Europe

United Kingdom

K. Sunil Mohamed

Emeritus, ICAR-Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute

India

Mazlin Mokhtar

Institute for Environment and Development, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

Malaysia

Gordon Munro

Vancouver School of Economics, The University of British Columbia

Canada

Grant Murray

Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University

United States

Dianne Newell

Institute for the Oceans and Fisheries, University of British Columbia

Canada

Tom Okey

School of Environmental Studies, University of Victoria

Canada

Dwight Owens

Ocean Networks Canada University of Victoria

Canada

Tessa Owens

School of International of Public Affairs and the Earth Institute at Columbia University

United States

Mohammed Oyinlola

Institute for the Oceans and Fisheries, University of British Columbia

Canada

Juliano Palacios Abrantes

Center for Limnology, University of Wisconsin-Madison

United States

Unai Pascual

Basque Centre for Climate Change

Spain

Daniel Pauly

Institute for the Oceans and Fisheries, University of British Columbia

Canada

Daniel Peñalosa

National Polythechnic Institute, Interdisciplinary Center of Marine Sciences

Mexico

Maria Pennino

Instituto Español de Oceanografía, Centro Oceanográfico de Vigo

Spain

Evelyn Pinkerton

School of Resource and Environmental Management, Simon Fraser University

Canada

Stephen Polasky

Department of Applied Economics, University of Minnesota

United States

Veronica Relano

Institute for the Oceans and Fisheries, University of British Columbia

Canada

Marten Sheffer

Wageningen University & Research

Netherlands

Kathleen Segerson

Department of Economics, University of Connecticut

United States

Karen Seto

School of the Environment, Yale University

United States

Jason Shogren

Department of Economics, University of Wyoming

United States

Jennifer Silver

University of Guelph

Canada

Gerald Singh

Department of Geography, Memorial University of Newfoundland

Canada

Ambre Soszynski

Institute for the Oceans and Fisheries, University of British Columbia

Canada

Dacotah-Victoria Splichalova

Institute for Resources, Environment & Sustainability, The University of British Columbia

Canada

Bryce D. Stewart

Department of Environment and Geography

United Kingdom

Curtis Suttle

Departments of Botany, Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences and Microbiology and Immunology, University of British Columbia

Canada

Alessandro Tagliabue

School of Environmental Sciences, University of Liverpool

United Kingdom

Nicolás Talloni-Álvarez

Institute for the Oceans and Fisheries, University of British Columbia

Canada

Alessandro Tavoni

Department of Economics, Universita di Bologna

Italy

D. R. Fraser Taylor

Geomatics and Cartographic Research CentreCarleton UniversityOttawaCanada

Canada

Louise Teh

Institute for the Oceans and Fisheries, University of British Columbia

Canada

Lydia Teh

Institute for the Oceans and Fisheries, University of British Columbia

Canada

Jean-Baptiste Thiebot

National Institute of Polar Research, 10-3, Midori-cho

Japan

Torsten Thiele

Institute for Advanced Sustainability Studies

Germany

Romola Thumbadoo

Geography and Environmental Studies, Carelton University

Canada

Michelle Tigchelaar

Center for Ocean Solutions, Stanford University

United States

Melissa Walsh

Marine Conservation Finance Consulting and Ocean Finance Initiative

Philippines

Elke Weber

Andlinger Center for Energy and Environment, Princeton University

United States

Frances Westley

University of Waterloo

Canada

Stella Williams

Mundus Maris

Nigeria

Boris Worm

Department of Biology, Dalhousie University

Canada

Lan Xiao

Hokkaido University, Institute for the Advancement of Higher Education

Japan

Nobuyuki Yagi

Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo

Japan

Dirk Zeller

School of Biological Sciences & Oceans Institute, University of Western Australia

Australia

Neil Adger

Department of Geography, College of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Exeter

United Kingdom

Natalie Ban

School of Environmental Studies, University of Victoria

Canada

Scott Barrett

Columbia University

United States

Cesar Bordehore

Multidisciplinary Institute for Environmental Studies Ramon Margalef, University of Alicane

Spain

Duncan Burnside

Institute for the Oceans and Fisheries, University of British Columbia

Canada

Brian Copeland

Vancouver School of Economics, University of British Columbia

Canada

Philippe Cury

Institut de Recherche pour le Développement

France

Jose Maria Da-Rocha

Economics and Business Administration for Society, Universidade de Vigo

Spain

Jessica Fanzo

Berman Institute of Bioethics, Nitze School of Advanced International Studies

United States

Thomas Frölicher

Climate and Environmental Physics, Physics Institute, University of Bern

Switzerland

Sadique Isahaku

General Education Academic and Career Pathway, Milwaukee Area Technical College

United States

Masahide Kaeriyama

Hokkaido University, Institute for the Advancement of Higher Education

Japan

Brooks Alexandra Kaiser

Department of Sociology, Environmental and Business Economics, University of Southern Denmark

Denmark

Troell Max

The Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences

Sweden

Saleem Mustafa

Institute for Environment and Development, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

Malaysia

Prateep Nayak

University of Waterloo

Canada

Frederik Noack

Department of Food and Resource Economics, University of British Columbia

Canada

Adibi M Nor

International Institute of Public Policy and Management, University of Malaya

Malaysia

Polina Orlov

Department of Earth, Ocean, and Atmospheric Sciences, University of British Columbia

Canada

Henrik Osterblom

Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University

Sweden

Evgeny Pakhomov

Department of Earth, Ocean, and Atmospheric Sciences, University of British Columbia

Canada

Garry Peterson

Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University

Sweden

Nicholas V.C. Polunin

School of Natural and Environmental Sciences, Newcastle University

United Kingdom

Amadou Tall

Tasmanian School of Business and Economics, University of Tasmania

Australia

Philippe Tortell

Department of Earth, Ocean, and Atmospheric Sciences, University of British Columbia

Canada

Umi Muawanah

The Agency for Research and Human Development on Marine Affairs and Fisheries, Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries, Indonesia

Indonesia

Cassandra Brooks

Environmental Studies, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80303-0397, United States

United States

Naina Pierri

University of Calabar

Brazil

Md Monirul Islam

Department of Fisheries, University of Dhaka

Bangladesh

Jessica Blythe

Brock University

Canada

Amanda Vincent

Project Seahorse, The University of British Columbia

Canada

Meryl Williams

Malaysia

Francisco Vergara

Universidad Autonoma de Baja California Sur (UABCS)

Mexico

Omitoyin Siyanbola

Department of Aquaculture and Fisheries Management, University of Ibadan

Nigeria

Nimah Osho-Abdulgafar

SAEIO Global Limited

Nigeria

Carlos Yaipén-Llanos

Organization for Research and Conservation of Aquatic Animals (ORCA) PERU

Peru

Manuel dos Santos

Marine and Environmental Sciences Centre (MARE) - Instituto Superior de Psicologia Aplicada (ISPA)

Portugal

Nuno Sales Henriques

CCMAR - Centre of Marine Sciences, University of Algarve

Portugal

Emanuel Gonçalves

Marine and Environmental Sciences Centre (MARE) - Instituto Superior de Psicologia Aplicada (ISPA)

Portugal

Gonçalo Silva

Marine and Environmental Sciences Centre (MARE) - Instituto Superior de Psicologia Aplicada (ISPA)

Portugal

José LIno Costa

Marine and Environmental Sciences Centre (MARE) - University of Lisbon - Faculty of Sciences of the University of Lisbon (FCUL)

Portugal

Vera Sequeira

Marine and Environmental Sciences Centre (MARE) - University of Lisbon - Faculty of Sciences of the University of Lisbon (FCUL)

Portugal

Susana Franca

Marine and Environmental Sciences Centre (MARE) - University of Lisbon - Faculty of Sciences of the University of Lisbon (FCUL)

Portugal

David Abecasis

CCMAR - Centre of Marine Sciences, University of Algarve

Portugal

Miguel Monteiro

c5Lab

Portugal

Miguel Pais

Marine and Environmental Sciences Centre (MARE) - University of Lisbon - Faculty of Sciences of the University of Lisbon (FCUL)

Portugal

Sandra Ramos

Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research (CIIMAR)

Portugal

Inês Sousa

Centre of Marine Sciences (CCMAR), University of Algarve

Portugal

Marisa Batista

Marine and Environmental Sciences Centre (MARE) - University of Lisbon - Faculty of Sciences of the University of Lisbon (FCUL)

Portugal

João Correia

Politécnico de Leiria - APECE - Portuguese Association for the Study and Conservation of Elasmobranchs

Portugal

Lina Saavedra-Diaz

Universidad del Magdalena

Colombia

Paula Satizabal

The University of Melbourne

Colombia

Emily Klein

The Pew Charitable Trusts

United States

Candice Michelot

Université Laval

Canada

F. Javier García-Cutrín

Universidade de Vigo

Spain

Ana Moura

Centre of Marine Sciences (CCMAR), University of Algarve; Portuguese Institute for the Ocean and Atmosphere (IPMA )

Portugal

Ana Tubío Gómez

Universidade de Santiago de Compostela

Spain

Jose Valentí Muelas

The University of British Columbia

Canada

Dallas Hamilton

University of Waikato

New Zealand

Kathryn Richmond

University of Auckland

New Zealand

Phoebe Racine

University of California Santa Barbara

United States

Catarina Frazão Santos

Marine and Environmental Sciences Centre (MARE) - University of Lisbon; Faculty of Sciences of the University of Lisbon (FCUL)

Portugal

Filipa Marques

Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research (CIIMAR) - Portuguese Institute for the Ocean and Atmosphere (IPMA )

Portugal

Paula Estévez Caride

University of Vigo

Spain

Margo Stiles

Global Fishing Watch

United States

Md Monirul Hossain

Asian Institute of Technology -AIT Extension

Thailand

Ambo Antigha

University of Calabar - Faculty of Oceanography

Nigeria

Asuquo Philomena

University of Calabar; Institute of Oceanography

Nigeria

Olaleye Ibukun Grace

University of Calabar; Institute of Oceanography

Nigeria

Ana Ulla

Universidade de Vigo

Spain

María Manuela Ordóñez Fernández

Universidade de Vigo

Spain

Godwin Otogo

University of Calabar

Nigeria

Kate Barclay

University of Technology Sydney

Australia

Ayodele Oloko

University of Bremen

Germany

Gustavo Bergantiños

Universidade de Vigo

Spain

Oluwayemisi Osodein

Lagos State University

Nigeria

Andrés d e Andrés

Universidade de Vigo

Spain

Adela Belackova

Centre of Marine Sciences (CCMAR), University of Algarve

Portugal

João Pontes

Centre of Marine Sciences (CCMAR), University of Algarve

Portugal

Frederico Oliverira

Centre of Marine Sciences (CCMAR), University of Algarve

Portugal

Arun Jenish

Tamil Nadu Dr. J. Jayalalithaa Fisheries University; Fisheries College and Research Institute

India

Cheila Almeida

Politécnico de Leiria

Portugal

Oke Muritala

National Institute for Policy and Strategic Studies, Kuru, Jos, Nigeria

Nigeria

Tonbara Kingdom

Niger Delta University

Nigeria

Francis Nwosu

University of Calabar

Nigeria

Daniel Lamas Novoa

Universidade de Vigo

Spain

Camilo Ocampo Gómez

Universidade de Vigo

Spain

Mariano Lastra

Universidade de Vigo

Spain

Eduardo Liz

Universidade de Vigo

Spain

Horacio Gervasio

5 Capitais

Mozambique

Christine Knott

Memorial University of Newfoundland and Labrador

Canada

Roberto Pereira-Moreira

Sociedad Española de Epidemiología

Spain

Madu Galappaththi

Environment Change & Governance Group, University of Waterloo

Canada

Cecile Brugere

Soulfish Research & Consultancy

France

Bernardino González

Universidade de Vigo

Spain

Fernando León-Mateos

Universidade de Vigo

Spain

Ellen Pikitch

Stony Brook University

United States

Roberto López-Valcarce

Universidade de Vigo

Spain

Javier Blanco Sierra

Universidade de Vigo

Spain

Maria D. Ferrero Martinez

Universidade de Vigo

Spain

Julia Carballo

Universidade de Vigo

Spain

Mariana Herrera

Universidade de Vigo

Spain

David Meyers

Conservation Finance Alliance

United States

Jose M. Hermida Ramón

Universidade de Vigo

Spain

Lucas Vázquez Besteiro

Universidade de Vigo

Spain

Maria Huete Ortega

Universidade de Vigo

Spain

Arno Formella

Universidade de Vigo

Spain

José A. Martin-Casal

Universidade de Vigo

Spain

Marah Hardt

Future of Fish

United States

Juan Carlos Burguillo Rial

Universidade de Vigo

Spain

Enrique Barreiro Alonso

Universidade de Vigo

Spain

Fernando Ribas

Universidade de Vigo

Spain

Maria Eugenia López de Silanes

Universidade de Vigo

Spain

Asha de Vos

Oceanswell

Sri Lanka

Cassia Patel

Oceanic Global

United States

Marce Gutiérrez-Graudins

Azul

United States

Richa Garg

University of Auckland

New Zealand

Agustin Perez-Barahona

CY Cergy Paris Université and Ecole Polytechnique

France

Sarah Foster

The University of British Columbia

Canada

Brittany Derrick

The University of British Columbia

Canada

Jordan Rosenfeld

The University of British Columbia

Canada

Jeffrey Hutchings

Dalhousie University

Canada

Regina Bestbier

Project Seahorse, The University of British Columbia

Canada

Josh McInnes

Marine Mammal Research Unit, The University of British Columbia

Canada

Nicola Smith

The University of British Columbia

Canada

Ana Pozas

The University of British Columbia

Canada

Adam Hicks

The University of British Columbia

Canada

Travis Tai

Pacific Climate Impacts Consortium

Canada

Maxwell Miner

The University of British Columbia

Canada

Alexis Bahl

The University of British Columbia

Canada

Kristen Sora

Institute for the Oceans and Fisheries, The University of British Columbia

Canada

Adepa Akosua Anyang

The University of British Columbia

Canada

Maria Lourdes Palomares

Sea Around Us Research Unit, Institute for the Oceans and Fisheries, The University of British Columbia

Canada

Hongsik Kim

Institute for the Oceans and Fisheries, The University of British Columbia

Canada

Estelle Jones

Marine Scotland Science, Marine Analytical Unit

United Kingdom

Katherine Came

Institute for the Oceans and Fisheries, The Univeristy of British Columbia

Canada

Sarah Hnytaka

Institute for the Oceans and Fisheries, The Univeristy of British Columbia

Canada

Mica Smith

Institute for the Oceans and Fisheries, The Univeristy of British Columbia

Canada

Melanie Warren

Institute for the Oceans and Fisheries, The University of British Columbia

Canada

Kathleen Gill

Institute for the Oceans and Fisheries, The University of British Columbia

Canada

Ema Fatima

Institute for the Oceans and Fisheries The University of British Columbia

India

Amy Chan

Earth, Ocean & Atmospheric Sciences, The University of British Columbia

Canada

Simron Singh

University of Waterloo

Canada

Prateep Nayak

School of Environment, Enterprise and Development, University of Waterloo

Canada

Yinji Li

Tokai University, School of Marine Science and Technology

Japan

Zac Warham

Institute for the Oceans and Fisheries, The University of British Columbia

Canada

Alida Bundy

Fisheries and Oceans Canada

Canada

Marcelo Morales Yokobori

Mundus maris asbl

Argentina

Cornelia E. Nauen

Mundus Maris; ; Quantitative Aquatics

Belgium

Monalisa Rodrigues Silva

Fishing ecology, management, and economics group, Department of Ecology, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte

Brazil

Erwin Prayogi

Kutai Kartanegara University

Indonesia

Rachelle Beveridge

Institute for Resources, Environment, and Sustainability, University of British Columbia

Canada

Gazi Islam

Graduate School of Business, Universiti Tun Abdul Razak

Malaysia

Tiziana Maringola

Affinity Water

Italy

Ana Beatriz Nestlehner Cardoso de Almeida

School of Regional and Urban Planning of University of Philippines

Brazil

Elsa Camins Martinez

Institute for the Oceans and Fisheries, The Univeristy of British Columbia

Spain

Mohammad Budrudzaman

University of Liberal Arts Bangladesh

Bangladesh

Aishwarya Pattanaik

School of Environment, Enterprise and Development, University of Waterloo

Canada

Philippa Cohen

WorldFish

Australia

Sevil Berenji

School of Environment, Enterprise and Development, University of Waterloo

Canada

Muhammad Tahir Yousaf

School of Environment, Enterprise and Development, University of Waterloo

Canada

Dennis Worlanyo Aheto

Centre for Coastal Management/ Africa Centre of Excellence in Coastal Resilience, University of Cape Coast

Ghana

Thamasak Yeemin

Marine Biodiversity Research Group, Faculty of Science, Ramkhamhaeng University, Huamark, Bangkok, Thailand

Thailand

Qurban Rouhani

Dept of Ichthyology & Fisheries Science, Rhodes University

South Africa

Devanathan Parthasarathy

Indian Institute of Technology Bombay

India

Roy Bealey

International Pole & Line Foundation

Kenya

Milena Arias Schreiber

School of Global Studies, University of Gothenburg

Sweden

Jacqueline Maud

Institute for the Oceans and Fisheries, The University of British Columbia

Canada

Foluke Areola

Lagos State University, Lagos State, Nigeria

Nigeria

Isa Elegbede

BTU, Germany/LASU

Nigeria/Germany

Mariana C Oliveira

University of Sao Paulo, USP

Brazil

Maria Battaglia

Water Institute, University of Waterloo

Canada

Acacio Tomas

The Fisheries Institute, Sao Paulo State Government

Brazil

Amanda Ricci Rodrigues

University of Sao Paulo, USP

Brazil

Matheus Oliveira Freitas

Meros of Brazil Institute

Brazil

Jocemar Mendonca

Fisheries Institute, Sao Paulo State Government

Brazil

Tatiana Leite

Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina - UFSC

Brazil

Natalie Benoit

University of British Columbia

Canada

Yulia Egorova

University of British Columbia

Russia

Wagner Valenti

Universidade Estadual Paulista

Brazil

Marcia Yamasoe

Universidade de São Paulo

Brazil

Fernando Pinzón-Ramírez

Fundación HIDROSFERA

Colombia

Edvaldo Gomes

Universidade de São Paulo

Brazil

Abayomi Jimoh

Lagos State University

Nigeria

Ayorinde Kappo

Lagos State University

Nigeria

Danilo Souza

Univeristy of São Paulo, USP

Brazil

Ivan Martins

Federal University os São Paulo, UNIFESP

Brazil

Claudia Faustino

Portugal

Athila Bertoncini

Meros of Brazil Institute

Brazil

Sergio Floeter

Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina

Brazil

Luciano Gomes Fischer

Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro

Brazil

Edna Ferreira Alencar

Universidade Federal do Pará - UFPA

Brazil

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References and Notes

  1. D. Pauly et al., Nature 418, 689 (2002).
  2. U. R. Sumaila et al., Mar. Pol. 109, 103695 (2019).
  3. WTO, Negotiations on fisheries subsidies (2021); www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/rulesneg_e/fish_e/fish_e.htm.
  4. D. Tickler et al., Sci. Adv. 4, eaar3279 (2018).
  5. E. Sala et al., Sci. Adv. 4, eaat2504 (2018).
  6. A. M. Cisneros-Montemayor et al., Mar. Pol. 69, 229 (2016).
  7. U. R. Sumaila et al., ICES J. Mar. Sci. 65, 832 (2008).
  8. United Nations General Assembly, “Transforming our World:
    The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development” (2015).
  9. M. D. Smith, Science 364, 34 (2019).
  10. High Level Panel for a Sustainable Ocean Economy, “Transformations for a sustainable ocean economy: A vision
    for production, protection and prosperity” (2020); www.oceanpanel.org/ocean-action/files/transformations-sustainable-ocean-economy-eng.pdf.
  11. M. A. Khan et al., J. Econ. Struct. 7, 1 (2018).
  12. A. M. Villarreal, I. F. Fergusson,“NAFTA and the United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement (USMCA)” (Congressional Research Service Report, 2020).